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Carbohydrate Glass

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Carbohydrate glass is an ideal sacrificial material for extrusion 3D printing. The material is especially suited to constructing lab-on-a-chip devices or vascular networks within cell-laden hydrogels.

Processed here into individual 1 mL cubes or 3 mL cylinders, this formulation is easily loaded into your extrusion system for consistent printing with minimal setup time.

Store carbohydrate glass in a cool and dry environment, under 50% relative humidity. Improper storage of the carbohydrate glass will make it difficult to handle or 3D print.


  • Composition: Biocompatible carbohydrates.
  • Cylinder dimensions: ≤10 mm in diameter, ~35 mm height (to fit into 10 mm diameter extruders), 3 mL in volume.
  • Cube dimensions: ≤10 mm on two sides, ~10 mm on third axis (to fit into 10 mm diameter extruders), 1 mL in volume.
  • 3D print at: 100-120 °C, 20-120 psi (pneumatic extrusion systems).

Related publications:

  1. Miller et al. Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues. Nature Materials. 2012 Sep;11(9):768-74. doi: 10.1038/nmat3357.
  2. Gelber et al. Monolithic multilayer microfluidics via sacrificial molding of 3D-printed isomalt. Lab on a Chip. 2015 Apr 7;15(7):1736-41. doi: 10.1039/c4lc01392a.
  3. Sooppan et al. In Vivo Anastomosis and Perfusion of a Three-Dimensionally-Printed Construct Containing Microchannel Networks. Tissue Engineering Part C Methods. 2016 Jan;22(1):1-7. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2015.0239.
  4. Mirabella et al. 3D-printed vascular networks direct therapeutic angiogenesis in ischaemia. Nature Biomedical Engineering. 2017;1. pii: 0083. doi: 10.1038/s41551-017-0083.
  5. Gelber et al. Model-Guided Design and Characterization of a High-Precision 3D Printing Process for Carbohydrate Glass. Additive Manufacturing. 2018;22:38-50. doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.04.026.